Amazing Islamic capitals in Cairo an indication Islamic art

Egypt had several capitals during its history. So in this interesting article, we will know the Islamic capitals of Egypt that are Al Fustat, Al-Askar, Al-Qata’i, and Cairo.

1) Al Fustat City

Al Fustat City was the first Islamic capital of Egypt. It is a part of Old Cairo. It was founded by Amr Ibn Al-Aas in 641 AD after the Muslims came to Egypt. Additionally, Amr Ibn Al-Aas built the first Mosque in Egypt and Africa which is Amr Ibn Al-Aas Mosque in it.  

Why did Amr Ibn Al-Aas choose this place to build Al Fustat city?

After Amr Ibn Al-Aas defeat the Roman in Egypt, he decided to build this city beside the Nile River and Babylon fort which was a unique strategic location that already fortified, in addition to the Muslims at that time were not good in sailing so they could not protect the northern coastal borders of Egypt where Alexandria (the capital of Egypt during the Roman period).

Why this city was called Al Fustat?

Al Fustat is an Arabic word means the leader’s tent. The researchers said that during the Amr Ibn Al-Aas conquest of Egypt, the Islamic army stayed on the north of Babylon and established their tents, but when Amr Ibn Al-Aas came to remove his tent, he found that there was a dove built its nest upon it, so he refused to remove it and decided to take this place as a capital. 

What monuments can be visited in Al Fustat city?

When you visit Al Fustat city you can see

Amr Ibn Al-Aas Mosque
Amr Ibn Al-Aas

The ‘Amr ibn al-‘As Mosque is Egypt’s and Africa’s oldest surviving mosque. General ʿAmr ibn al-ʿAs was an early companion of the Prophet Muhammad. After conquering Egypt in 20 AH/640 AD, he established Fustat, the country’s first Islamic capital, which is now located in Cairo. A year later, on the orders of Caliph ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, he also founded the eponymous mosque of ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, which became the new capital’s first structure.

The structure underwent numerous architectural changes over its lifetime, so that very little of the original remains today. The mosque was rebuilt in the twentieth century and is now located in Old Cairo. However, it retains the modesty of Islamic architecture in its earliest form, evolving from a shed with palm-tree columns to the elegant arcade halls that continue to house prayers today.

Old Cairo that contains
The Hanging Church

It was called the Suspended Church because it was built on two of the ancient towers of the Roman fort. (Fortress of Babylon), and the Hanging Church is the oldest surviving church in Egypt. Therefore the church is a very important and absolutely unmissable stop on the tourist itinerary focused on the places linked to the Holy Family, which characterize the capital of Egypt. The internal decorations feature icons in Greek Orthodox style and have thirteen pillars, which respectively represent Christ and the twelve apostles.

Internal description of the church: The entrance from the street is through iron gates under a pointed stone arch. Then you see a facade with two twin towers and a bell tower outside a narrow courtyard with neo-biblical designs.

The Cavern Church

The Cavern Church has several names as Abu Serga Church, the St. Sergius Church, or Saints Sergius and Bacchus Church. It lies in Coptic Cairo beside the Hanging church.

The church is dedicated to Sergius and Bacchus, who were soldier-saints martyred during the 4th century in Syria by the Roman Emperor Maximian.

The Coptic Museum

The Coptic Museum opened in 1910 and houses the world’s largest collection of Coptic artifacts. Marcus Simaika Pasha, a prominent Coptic figure committed to the preservation of Coptic heritage, spearheaded the museum’s establishment. Simaika Pasha purchased and collected Coptic antiquities and architectural elements from older churches that were being renovated, then used them to build the museum and establish its collection.

Ben Ezra Synagogue.  

Ben Ezra Synagogue: Egypt has many interesting tourist destinations to visit. Every Egyptian city has something unique. The ancient Egyptian civilization was present in the majority of the cities. Cairo is Egypt’s most famous city because it is the capital and a hub for cultures and destinations from various civilizations.

Cairo has many churches and mosques, but Egypt has few synagogues. After being expelled from Spain, Jews began to emigrate to Egypt, where their numbers increased due to commercial opportunities following the opening of the Suez Canal.


2) Al-Askar City

It was the second Islamic capital of Egypt. It was built during the Abbasid period at 751 AD. Al-Askar is an Arabic word means the soldiers. this city was established in the north of Al Fustat city. 

3) Al-Qata’i City

It was the third Islamic capital of Egypt. It was built during the Tulunid period by Ahmad ibn Tulun in 868 AD in the northeast of Al Fustat and Al-Askar on Yashkur Mountain.

Ahmad ibn Tulun was sent to Egypt by the Abbasid Caliph and decided to remain in Egypt and created his dynasty in 868.

What monuments can be visited in Al-Qata’i city?

When you visit Al-Qata’i city you can see the IbnTulun mosque and the Gayer-Anderson Museum (Bayt al-Kiritliya). 

4) Cairo City

Cairo was the fourth Islamic capital of Egypt. After the conquering of The Fatimids Egypt, the ruler Al-Mu’izz li-Din Allah commanded Jawhar Al-Siqilli to build Cairo city in 969 AD and dedicated as the capital of Egypt. Al-Mu’izz li-Din Allah named this city Al-Qahira (It is an Arabic word means the vanquisher). 

It was surrounded by walls that took the square shape. It was bordered on the east with the Nile River and the west by El Mokattam Mountain. 

What monuments can be visited in Cairo city?

When you visit Cairo city you can see several monuments from different Islamic periods such as Khan El Khalili Bazaar, Al Azhar Mosque, the Sabil-Kuttab of Abdel-Rahman Katkhud, Al Aqmar Mosque, Bayt Al Suhaymi or Al Suhaymi House, Bab Zuweila, Bab al Futuh, and Bab El Nasr.  

Explore Egypt Tours hope you enjoy reading about Egyptian history, and if you want to know more kindly submit on Cairo Day Tours  

Explore Egypt Tours Tripadvisor