This article presents the golden age of ancient Egyptian civilization belonging to The Giza Necropolis. It dates back to the 4th dynasty, old kingdom. This period is famous for the greatness of its pyramids referring to economic prosperity.
The Giza Necropolis contains nine pyramids dedicated to the burial for both kings and queens of the 4th dynasty. These pyramids attract a lot of tourists from all over the world who stand in front of it fascinated by its greatness.
1) The Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu Pyramid)
Cheops is the Greek name of King Khufu. He was the 2nd king in the 4th dynasty, old kingdom. He was the son of queen Hetepheres I, and king Snefru.
Why is the pyramid of King Cheops famous?
Although this pyramid did not fulfill its purpose that was the protection of the king’s corpse, it immortalized his name throughout history, in addition to it became one of the Ancient Seven Wonders because of the genius of ancient Egyptians in both engineering and design fields that appears in its construction.
It was built by using 2.3 Million limestone blocks. The weight of each block is about 2 and a half tons. Its height was 146 meters, but after the removal of its outer casing, its height became 137 meters. The construction of this pyramid took 20 years.
It consists of three chambers but the burial chamber was placed in the middle of the pyramid that topped up with relieving chambers. These chambers are five empty rooms that were built to relieve pressure on the burial chamber. There is a new chamber is discovered in the pyramid but the researches and studies are still being conducted.
2) Solar Boat Museum
This museum was built where the boat was discovered. It is dedicated to displaying what was discovered south of Cheops pyramid by Kamal El Malakh in 1954 whereas he discovered this boat, oars, and ropes in a hole covered with almost 40 limestone blocks.
The boat was made from cedar which was imported from Lebanon. It was disassembled for 1224 individual pieces.
Why was that boat called the solar boat?
Because it is thought that this boat was one of the important funerary elements that were placed with the king in his tomb for use in the other world for sailing during his day and night trip with the god Ra (Sun God).
But the new studies showed that the real purpose of this boat was just transferring king corpse from Memphis the capital of Egypt in that time on the east bank of the Nile to his Pyramid on the west bank.
3) Pyramid of Chephren (Khafre Pyramid)
Chephren is the Greek name of King Khafre. He was the 4th king in the 4th dynasty, old kingdom. He was the son of the king Cheops.
What is the description of the Chephren Pyramid?
- It was built on a high hummock that makes it appears bigger than the Cheops pyramid. It has 133 m High.
- It is considered the most complete complex in Giza Necropolis whereas it consists of the valley temple, the pyramid, the causeway, and the mortuary temple.
- The Chephren pyramid is distinguished by keeping part of its outer casing at the top!
- The Valley Temple of king Chephren.
The main purpose of the valley temple was for mummifying the King and preparing it before the burial.
There are several statues were discovered in the valley temple that belongs to Chephren such as the famous statue of King Chephren and the god Horus that is considered as evidence on the genius of ancient Egyptians in sculpture.
4) The Great Sphinx of Giza
The Great Sphinx of Giza belongs to king Chephren. It was made of one single piece of sandstone cut into the rock.
Sphinx is a mythical creature that takes the shape of the human head and lion’s body. There is a stela was discovered in front of the Great Sphinx is called the dream stela of Tuthmosis IV that dates back to the 18th dynasty, New kingdom.
From where does the name of sphinx come from?
The word (Sphinx) is a Greek word that was derived from the ancient Egyptian word (Ssp Ankh) which means the living image. So we can say that the Sphinx statues are a metaphor for the physical and mental power of the living king, the physical power can be noticed in the lion’s body, while the mental power can be noticed in the human head of the king himself that wearing the royal headdress. So we think that the Great Sphinx is a symbol of protection for the royal Necropolis.
5) Pyramid of Mykerinos (Menkaure Pyramid)
Mykerinos is the Greek name of King Menkaure. Mykerinos was the 5th king in the 4th dynasty, old kingdom. He was the son of king Chephren and his successor.
The pyramid of Mykerinos was built from white limestone and the lower part of the pyramid was covered with red granite. The pyramid has 65 m high.
6) The Pyramids of Queens
Cheops and Mykerinos were built the queens pyramids inside their complexes. The king Cheops complex contains three pyramids of queens, two pyramids were dedicated to two queens form the royal family, while the third one was for his wife. While the king Mykerinos complex contains three pyramids for three queens from the royal family.
Explore Egypt Tours recommend you to visit the Giza Necropolis to see more about the ancient Egyptian civilization and enjoy with the greatness of these pyramids. Kindly submit on this unique day tour.