Abusir is located several kilometers north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis. Several other villages in northern and southern Egypt are named Abusir or Busiri.
Abusir, the House of Osiris, is the name given to an Egyptian necropolis of the Old Kingdom period. This site is rich with archaeological remains and covered by many pyramids, solar temples, and non-royal tombs. Actually, the Abusir archaeological site is known for the Abusir Papyri, the largest finding of papyri, dating from the period of the Old Kingdom.
There are a total of 14 pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth dynasty. The three major pyramids are the Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai, the tallest pyramid at the site is the Pyramid of Niuserre, the most intact pyramid at the site, and the Pyramid of Sahure known for its finely carved reliefs. There are smaller pyramids like the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre, the pyramid of Queen Khentkaus II, wife of Neferirkare and mother of Neferefre and Niuserre, and some other headless pyramids.
The tombs of several high officials and family members around the king’s pyramid: the mastaba of Ptahshepses a vizier under Niuserre, the mastaba of Prince Nakhtkare.
The tombs of Abusir-south
The lower-ranking officials of the Old Kingdom, including the following tombs: the tomb of Ity dates back to the 3rd dynasty, the tomb of Hetepi a priest, beginning of the 3rd dynasty, the tomb of Kaaper an architect and priest, 4th dynasty, the tomb of Rahotep a priest, end of 5th dynasty, the tomb of Fetekti a priest, end of 5th dynasty, and the tomb of Qar and his sons a vizier, 6th dynasty.
Ramesside temple: it lies about 500 meters southeast of the pyramids, close to the cultivation in the desert. The main building of the temple was built of limestone. There were three cellars, a small hall with 4 columns, and a courtyard (with mudbrick walls) with 10 limestone columns. The limestone building was placed within a larger complex made of mud bricks with a pylon and magazines.