Alexandria called the bride of the Mediterranean, located in the north of Egypt, and overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. It is considered the second capital of Egypt due to its importance.
What was Alexandria in Alexander the Great era?
While Alexander the Great was doing his conquests to expand his empire in the Mediterranean area, he found a place that has an important strategic place and decided to create a city in 332 in this place and named it on his name to be Alexandria city. Alexander the Great commanded engineer Dinocrates to create the design plan of this city (streets, roads, and squares). This design looked like Chess. Unfortunately, the construction of Alexandria city was finished after the death of Alexander the Great but he was buried in it but his tomb has not been found yet.
It is said the during putting the plan of the Alexandria city, there was no limestone to determine the plan on the ground so they used the grain which led to birds come to the ground and eat these grain what made the Greeks believed that their coming to Egypt will satisfy the Egyptians.
What was Alexandria in the Ptolemaic era?
The Ptolemies ruled Egypt from Alexandria as their capital after the death of Alexander the Great from Ptolemy I to Cleopatra VII. The position of Alexandria in that time was very important both commercially and militarily. Alexandria in the Ptolemaic era saw the construction of two important buildings (The Old Library of Alexandria and Moses). Additionally, the Greeks Rulers merged the ancient Egyptian and Greek mythology.
The Ptolemies ruled Egypt from Alexandria as their capital after the death of The Great Alexander from Ptolemy I to Cleopatra VII. The position of Alexandria in that time was very important both commercially and militarily. Alexandria in the Ptolemaic era saw the construction of two important buildings (The Old Library of Alexandria and Moses). Additionally, the Greeks Rulers merged the ancient Egyptian and Greek mythology.
The Ptolemies gave the Jews a great position, whereas the Ptolemaic kings welcomed them in Egypt from Palestine, thus their numbers became increasing and centered from Alexandria to Aswan.
How did Alexandria city become during Roman times?
At the end of Cleopatra VII, the Romans entered Egypt led by Julius Caesar because of the weakness of the Ptolemaic rulers so Egypt became a Roman state. The position of Alexandria in that time was very important because it was considered as a warehouse of wheat that was exported to Rome. But in contrast, the situation of the Alexandrians themselves was very bad, and they were considered in a lower class in Alexandria and in contrast, the Jew position became more increasing, whereas they got a lot of franchises, which led to the Alexandrians, do revolutions against the Roman rulers.
How was Alexandria in Christian time?
The evangelist St. Mark entered and called for Christianity from Alexandria in the 1st century, and built the first church in Egypt and Africa that later becomes the place of the Saint Mark Cathedral where St. Mark was buried.
Initially, the Romans were persecuting the Christians, but after the announcement of the Edict of Milan by Constantine, in which he recognized Christianity as one of the religions authorized to practice its rites in the empire.
What was the history of Alexandria in the Islamic era?
The importance of Alexandria in the Islamic era was because of its unique location both military and economic in the era of the Fatimid and Ayyubid. But in the Mamluk era Alexandria became more important whereas there were a lot of buildings were built and a lot of repairs and development have been done in the city, and Sultan Qaitbay built Qaitbay Castle that is considered as a unique tourist destination, However, at the end of the Mamluks era, Alexandria’s position was weakened, as its commercial importance decreased due to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope path.
The position of Alexandria continued to deteriorate in the Ottoman era because of the French campaign that destroyed many of Alexandria’s buildings. But Mohamed Ali and his family cared in Alexandria and it started to return its important position again whereas a lot of reforms and projects have been undertaken to develop Alexandria, but unfortunately, Egypt became weak at the end of Mohamed Ali family, and Alexandria saw the exit of the last rulers from the Muhammad Ali family who was king Farouq who left Egypt from Ras Al-Teen Palace.
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